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The first step:Reeling

The process extract silk from cocoon is called reeling, one cocoon can reel out about 1000 meter long silk, but it only 50% weight of the cocoon, if you want to know how cocoon be composited, please refer the structure of cocoon.

hand reel

machine reel

The second step: weaving

One silk filament composed by two monofilaments, a few silk filaments spinning together becomes raw silk. There are two main way to produce silk fabric, one is gum silk weaving, another one is degummed silk weaving.

Gum silk weaving is direct use raw silk weave to silk grey, then the silk grey need to be refined and dyed. This is the most commonly used way for most of silk fabric for its ease and economic.

Degummed silk weaving, the raw silk need to be refined and dyed before it be weaved, so the silk fabric don’t need to be refined and dyed after weaved, this way is normally used for some high end silk fabric.

hand weaving

machine weaving

The third stepDyeing and finishing
Dyeing and finishing including three main processes: refine oxidizing process, dyeing process and finishing process.

  1. Refine oxidizing process:  The silk filament composited by two ingredient, the main is silk protein, outside wrapped by sericin, the sericin mainly composed by pigments, oils, waxes and inorganic salts, these impurities will greatly affect the dyeing process, so they need to be remove before dyeing,  the raw silk after refined we get white boiled-off silk.
  2. Dyeing process: Because the main ingredient of silk is protein, so it need to be dyed in acid dyestuff or neutral dyestuff.
  3. Finishing process: mainly including mechanical finishing and chemical finishing, mechanical finishing to handle the wrinkle problem and breadth problem. Chemical finishing is to add some fabric softener, antistatic agent to let the silk fabric become more soft and anti-wrinkle.